'Anna, Lady Baxby' by Thomas Hardy

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Dame the Seventh

By the Colonel

It was in the time of the great Civil War—if I should not rather, as a loyal subject, call it, with Clarendon, the Great Rebellion. It was, I say, at that unhappy period of our history that, towards the autumn of a particular year, the Parliament forces sat down before Sherton Castle with over seven thousand foot and four pieces of cannon. The Castle, as we all know, was in that century owned and occupied by one of the Earls of Severn, and garrisoned for his assistance by a certain noble Marquis who commanded the King's troops in these parts. The said Earl, as well as the young Lord Baxby, his eldest son, were away from home just now, raising forces for the King elsewhere. But there were present in the Castle, when the besiegers arrived before it, the son's fair wife Lady Baxby, and her servants, together with some friends and near relatives of her husband; and the defence was so good and well considered that they anticipated no great danger.

The Parliamentary forces were also commanded by a noble lord—for the nobility were by no means, at this stage of the war, all on the King's side—and it had been observed during his approach in the nighttime, and in the morning when the reconnoitring took place, that he appeared sad and much depressed. The truth was that, by a strange freak of destiny, it had come to pass that the stronghold he was set to reduce was the home of his own sister, whom he had tenderly loved during her maidenhood, and whom he loved now, in spite of the estrangement which had resulted from hostilities with her husband's family. He believed, too, that, notwithstanding this cruel division, she still was sincerely attached to him.

His hesitation to point his ordnance at the walls was inexplicable to those who were strangers to his family history. He remained in the field on the north side of the Castle (called by his name to this day because of his encampment there) till it occurred to him to send a messenger to his sister Anna with a letter, in which he earnestly requested her, as she valued her life, to steal out of the place by the little gate to the south, and make away in that direction to the residence of some friends.

Shortly after he saw, to his great surprise, coming from the front of the Castle walls a lady on horseback, with a single attendant. She rode straight forward into the field, and up the slope to where his army and tents were spread. It was not till she got quite near that he discerned her to be his sister Anna; and much was he alarmed that she should have run such risk as to sally out in the face of his forces without knowledge of their proceedings, when at any moment their first discharge might have burst forth, to her own destruction in such exposure. She dismounted before she was quite close to him, and he saw that her familiar face, though pale, was not at all tearful, as it would have been in their younger days. Indeed, if the particulars as handed down are to be believed, he was in a more tearful state than she, in his anxiety about her. He called her into his tent, out of the gaze of those around; for though many of the soldiers were honest and serious-minded men, he could not bear that she who had been his dear companion in childhood should be exposed to curious observation in this her great grief.

When they were alone in the tent he clasped her in his arms, for he had not seen her since those happier days when, at the commencement of the war, her husband and himself had been of the same mind about the arbitrary conduct of the King, and had little dreamt that they would not go to extremes together. She was the calmer of the two, it is said, and was the first to speak connectedly.

'William, I have come to you,' said she, 'but not to save myself as you suppose. Why, O, why do you persist in supporting this disloyal cause, and grieving us so?'

'Say not that,' he replied hastily. 'If truth hides at the bottom of a well, why should you suppose justice to be in high places? I am for the right at any price. Anna, leave the Castle; you are my sister; come away, my dear, and save thy life!'

'Never!' says she. 'Do you plan to carry out this attack, and level the Castle indeed?'

'Most certainly I do,' says he. 'What meaneth this army around us if not so?'

'Then you will find the bones of your sister buried in the ruins you cause!' said she. And without another word she turned and left him.

'Anna—abide with me!' he entreated. 'Blood is thicker than water, and what is there in common between you and your husband now?'

But she shook her head and would not hear him; and hastening out, mounted her horse, and returned towards the Castle as she had come. Ay, many's the time when I have been riding to hounds across that field that I have thought of that scene!

When she had quite gone down the field, and over the intervening ground, and round the bastion, so that he could no longer even see the tip of her mare's white tail, he was much more deeply moved by emotions concerning her and her welfare than he had been while she was before him. He wildly reproached himself that he had not detained her by force for her own good, so that, come what might, she would be under his protection and not under that of her husband, whose impulsive nature rendered him too open to instantaneous impressions and sudden changes of plan; he was now acting in this cause and now in that, and lacked the cool judgment necessary for the protection of a woman in these troubled times. Her brother thought of her words again and again, and sighed, and even considered if a sister were not of more value than a principle, and if he would not have acted more naturally in throwing in his lot with hers.

The delay of the besiegers in attacking the Castle was said to be entirely owing to this distraction on the part of their leader, who remained on the spot attempting some indecisive operations, and parlaying with the Marquis then in command, with far inferior forces, within the Castle. It never occurred to him that in the meantime the young Lady Baxby, his sister, was in much the same mood as himself. Her brother's familiar voice and eyes, much worn and fatigued by keeping the field, and by family distractions on account of this unhappy feud, rose upon her vision all the afternoon, and as day waned she grew more and more Parliamentarian in her principles, though the only arguments which had addressed themselves to her were those of family ties.

Her husband, General Lord Baxby, had been expected to return all the day from his excursion into the east of the county, a message having been sent to him informing him of what had happened at home; and in the evening he arrived with reinforcements in unexpected numbers. Her brother retreated before these to a hill near Ivell, four or five miles off, to afford the men and himself some repose. Lord Baxby duly placed his forces, and there was no longer any immediate danger. By this time Lady Baxby's feelings were more Parliamentarian than ever, and in her fancy the fagged countenance of her brother, beaten back by her husband, seemed to reproach her for heartlessness. When her husband entered her apartment, ruddy and boisterous, and full of hope, she received him but sadly; and upon his casually uttering some slighting words about her brother's withdrawal, which seemed to convey an imputation upon his courage, she resented them, and retorted that he, Lord Baxby himself, had been against the Court-party at first, where it would be much more to his credit if he were at present, and showing her brother's consistency of opinion, instead of supporting the lying policy of the King (as she called it) for the sake of a barren principle of loyalty, which was but an empty expression when a King was not at one with his people. The dissension grew bitter between them, reaching to little less than a hot quarrel, both being quick-tempered souls.

Lord Baxby was weary with his long day's march and other excitements, and soon retired to bed. His lady followed some time after. Her husband slept profoundly, but not so she; she sat brooding by the window-slit, and lifting the curtain looked forth upon the hills without.

In the silence between the footfalls of the sentinels she could hear faint sounds of her brother's camp on the distant hills, where the soldiery had hardly settled yet into their bivouac since their evening's retreat. The first frosts of autumn had touched the grass, and shrivelled the more delicate leaves of the creepers; and she thought of William sleeping on the chilly ground, under the strain of these hardships. Tears flooded her eyes as she returned to her husband's imputations upon his courage, as if there could be any doubt of Lord William's courage after what he had done in the past days.

Lord Baxby's long and reposeful breathings in his comfortable bed vexed her now, and she came to a determination on an impulse. Hastily lighting a taper she wrote on a scrap of paper:

'Blood is thicker than water, dear William—I will come'; and with this in her hand, she went to the door of the room, and out upon the stairs; on second thoughts turning back for a moment, to put on her husband's hat and cloak—not the one he was daily wearing—that if seen in the twilight she might at a casual glance appear as some lad or hanger-on of one of the household women; thus accoutred she descended a flight of circular stairs, at the bottom of which was a door opening upon the terrace towards the west, in the direction of her brother's position. Her object was to slip out without the sentry seeing her, get to the stables, arouse one of the varlets, and send him ahead of her along the highway with the note to warn her brother of her approach to throw in her lot with his.

She was still in the shadow of the wall on the west terrace, waiting for the sentinel to be quite out of the way, when her ears were greeted by a voice, saying, from the adjoining shade —

'Here I be!'

The tones were the tones of a woman. Lady Baxby made no reply, and stood close to the wall.

'My Lord Baxby,' the voice continued; and she could recognize in it the local accent of some girl from the little town of Sherton, close at hand. 'I be tired of waiting, my dear Lord Baxby! I was afeard you would never come!'

Lady Baxby flushed hot to her toes.

'How the wench loves him!' she said to herself, reasoning from the tones of the voice, which were plaintive and sweet and tender as a bird's. She changed from the home-hating truant to the strategic wife in one moment.

'Hist!' she said.

'My lord, you told me ten o'clock, and 'tis near twelve now,' continues the other. 'How could ye keep me waiting so if you love me as you said? I should have stuck to my lover in the Parliament troops if it had not been for thee, my dear lord!'

There was not the least doubt that Lady Baxby had been mistaken for her husband by this intriguing damsel. Here was a pretty underhand business! Here were sly maneuverings! Here was faithlessness! Here was a precious assignation surprised in the midst! Her wicked husband, whom till this very moment she had ever deemed the soul of good faith—how could he!

Lady Baxby precipitately retreated to the door in the turret, closed it, locked it, and ascended one round of the staircase, where there was a loophole. 'I am not coming! I, Lord Baxby, despise 'ee and all your wanton tribe!' she hissed through the opening; and then crept upstairs, as firmly rooted in Royalist principles as any man in the Castle.

Her husband still slept the sleep of the weary, well fed, and well drunken, if not of the virtuous; and Lady Baxby quickly disrobed herself without assistance—being, indeed, supposed by her woman to have retired to rest long ago. Before lying down she noiselessly locked the door and placed the key under her pillow. More than that, she got a staylace, and, creeping up to her lord, in great stealth tied the lace in a tight knot to one of his long locks of hair, attaching the other end of the lace to the bedpost; for, being tired herself now, she feared she might sleep heavily; and, if her husband should wake, this would be a delicate hint that she had discovered all.

It is added that, to make assurance trebly sure, her gentle ladyship, when she had lain down to rest, held her lord's hand in her own during the whole of the night. But this is old-wives' gossip, and not corroborated. What Lord Baxby thought and said when he awoke the next morning, and found himself so strangely tethered, is likewise only matter of conjecture; though there is no reason to suppose that his rage was great. The extent of his culpability as regards the intrigue was this much; that, while halting at a cross-road near Sherton that day, he had flirted with a pretty young woman, who seemed nothing loth, and had invited her to the Castle terrace after dark—an invitation which he quite forgot on his arrival home.

The subsequent relations of Lord and Lady Baxby I were not again greatly embittered by quarrels, so far as is known; though the husband's conduct in later life was occasionally eccentric, and the vicissitudes of his public career culminated in long exile. The siege of the Castle was not regularly undertaken till two or three years later than the time I have been describing, when Lady Baxby and all the women therein, except the wife of the then Governor, had been removed to safe distance. That memorable siege of fifteen days by Fairfax, and the surrender of the old place on an August evening, is matter of history, and need not be told by me.

The Man of Family spoke approvingly across to the Colonel when the Club had done smiling, declaring that the story was an absolutely faithful page of history, as he had good reason to know, his own people having been engaged in that well-known scrimmage. He asked if the Colonel had ever heard the equally well authenticated, though less martial tale of a certain Lady Penelope, who lived in the same century, and not a score of miles from the same place?

The Colonel had not heard it, nor had anybody except the local historian; and the inquirer was induced to proceed forthwith.

Editor 1 Interpretation

Anna, Lady Baxby: A Masterpiece of Thomas Hardy

Are you a fan of Victorian literature? Do you enjoy reading about strong-willed women who defy social norms and expectations? Then, you must read Anna, Lady Baxby by Thomas Hardy. This short story is a masterpiece of Hardy's literary genius, exploring the themes of love, loyalty, and societal pressures in a way that only he could.

Plot Summary

Anna, Lady Baxby, is a wealthy and beautiful widow living in the countryside of England. She is admired and desired by many, but she has never remarried after the death of her husband. One day, a young man named William Dagworthy comes to her estate seeking employment. He is poor and has a wife and child to support, but Lady Baxby sees something in him and decides to hire him as her land steward.

As William works for Lady Baxby, he becomes infatuated with her, and she starts to develop feelings for him as well. However, they both try to suppress their feelings due to their societal positions. Lady Baxby is a wealthy widow, and William is just a poor man who works for her. Their love for each other is forbidden, and they both know it.

Things take a turn for the worse when Lady Baxby's nephew, Sir John Baxby, comes to visit her. He is a snobbish and arrogant man who disapproves of Lady Baxby's friendship with William. Sir John tries to turn Lady Baxby against William, but she refuses to listen to him. In the end, Lady Baxby and William confess their love for each other, but they both know they can never be together. Lady Baxby offers William a higher position, but he declines and leaves her estate to return to his family.

Literary Analysis

One of the most striking aspects of Anna, Lady Baxby is the character of Lady Baxby herself. She is a strong-willed woman who is not afraid to go against the expectations of her society. She is wealthy and beautiful, but she is not content to just sit back and enjoy her wealth. Instead, she takes an active role in managing her estate, and she takes a chance on hiring William, a poor man with no connections.

Lady Baxby's relationship with William is also fascinating. At first, she sees him as just an employee, but as she gets to know him better, she starts to see him as a person. She is not blinded by his poverty, but instead sees his potential. This is evident when she offers him a higher position, even though it would mean losing him as her land steward.

The theme of societal pressures is also prevalent in the story. Lady Baxby and William both know that their love for each other is forbidden, and they try to suppress their feelings. Lady Baxby is afraid of what her society will think of her if she is seen with a poor man, and William is afraid of losing his job if he acts on his feelings. This theme is also reflected in Sir John, who represents the snobbish and judgmental attitudes of Lady Baxby's society.

The ending of the story is particularly poignant. Lady Baxby and William confess their love for each other, but they both know that they cannot be together. Lady Baxby offers William a higher position, but he declines and leaves her estate to return to his family. This ending is both heartbreaking and realistic. Lady Baxby and William may love each other, but their societal positions make it impossible for them to be together.


Anna, Lady Baxby is a story that explores the complexities of love and loyalty in a society that values wealth and status above all else. Lady Baxby is a strong-willed woman who is not afraid to go against societal expectations, but even she is not immune to the pressures of her society. Her love for William is genuine, but she cannot act on it because of the societal barriers that exist between them.

The character of Sir John represents the snobbish and judgmental attitudes of Lady Baxby's society. He disapproves of Lady Baxby's friendship with William, and he tries to turn her against him. However, Lady Baxby refuses to listen to him, showing that she is not easily swayed by societal pressures.

The ending of the story is both tragic and realistic. Lady Baxby and William love each other, but they both know that they cannot be together. Lady Baxby offers William a higher position, but he declines, showing that he values his family above his own desires. This ending shows that love cannot always conquer societal barriers, and that sometimes, loyalty to one's family is more important than personal happiness.


Anna, Lady Baxby is a masterpiece of Thomas Hardy's literary genius, exploring the themes of love, loyalty, and societal pressures in a way that only he could. Lady Baxby is a strong-willed woman who defies societal expectations, but even she is not immune to the pressures of her society. The character of Sir John represents the snobbish and judgmental attitudes of Lady Baxby's society, and the ending of the story is both tragic and realistic. If you enjoy Victorian literature and strong-willed female characters, then you must read Anna, Lady Baxby.

Editor 2 Analysis and Explanation

Thomas Hardy's Anna, Lady Baxby is a classic prose that has stood the test of time. It is a story that captures the essence of love, betrayal, and redemption. The story is set in the 19th century and revolves around the life of Anna, Lady Baxby, a woman who is trapped in a loveless marriage. In this analysis, we will delve into the themes, characters, and plot of this classic novel.

The story begins with the introduction of Anna, Lady Baxby, a woman who is married to a wealthy man, Sir William Baxby. Anna is a beautiful woman, but she is unhappy in her marriage. Sir William is a cold and distant man who shows no affection towards his wife. Anna longs for love and affection, but she knows that she will never find it in her marriage.

The first theme that emerges in the story is love. Anna is a woman who is desperate for love. She longs for someone to love her and show her affection. She is willing to do anything to find love, even if it means betraying her husband. Anna's desire for love is what leads her to have an affair with a young man named Swithin St. Cleeve.

Swithin is a young astronomer who is passionate about his work. He is also a man who is deeply in love with Anna. Swithin and Anna's love affair is the central plot of the story. Their love is forbidden, and they must keep their relationship a secret. However, their love is not meant to be, and they are eventually caught by Sir William.

The second theme that emerges in the story is betrayal. Anna's affair with Swithin is a betrayal of her marriage vows. She is betraying her husband, who has provided her with a comfortable life. Anna's betrayal is not only towards her husband but also towards Swithin. She knows that their love is forbidden, and yet she continues to pursue it.

The third theme that emerges in the story is redemption. Anna's affair with Swithin leads to her downfall. She loses everything, including her reputation and her husband's love. However, Anna's downfall is also her redemption. She realizes that her pursuit of love was misguided, and she must make amends for her actions. Anna's redemption comes in the form of her sacrifice for Swithin. She gives up her love for him and allows him to pursue his dreams.

The characters in Anna, Lady Baxby are well-developed and complex. Anna is a woman who is trapped in a loveless marriage. She is desperate for love and affection, and she finds it in Swithin. However, her pursuit of love leads to her downfall. Sir William is a cold and distant man who shows no affection towards his wife. He is a man who is more concerned with his reputation than his wife's happiness. Swithin is a young man who is passionate about his work and deeply in love with Anna. He is willing to risk everything for their love.

The plot of Anna, Lady Baxby is well-crafted and engaging. The story is told in a linear fashion, and the events unfold in a logical sequence. The plot is driven by the love affair between Anna and Swithin. Their love is forbidden, and they must keep their relationship a secret. However, their love is not meant to be, and they are eventually caught by Sir William. The plot is also driven by Anna's redemption. She realizes that her pursuit of love was misguided, and she must make amends for her actions.

In conclusion, Anna, Lady Baxby is a classic novel that explores the themes of love, betrayal, and redemption. The characters are well-developed and complex, and the plot is engaging and well-crafted. The story is a timeless tale of love and the consequences of pursuing it at all costs. Thomas Hardy's Anna, Lady Baxby is a must-read for anyone who loves classic literature.

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