'In Memory Of Major Robert Gregory' by William Butler Yeats
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The Wild Swans at Coole1919INow that we're almost settled in our house
I'll name the friends that cannot sup with us
Beside a fire of turf in th' ancient tower,
And having talked to some late hour
Climb up the narrow winding stair to bed:
Discoverers of forgotten truth
Or mere companions of my youth,
All, all are in my thoughts to-night being dead.IIAlways we'd have the new friend meet the old
And we are hurt if either friend seem cold,
And there is salt to lengthen out the smart
In the affections of our heart,
And quatrels are blown up upon that head;
But not a friend that I would bring
This night can set us quarrelling,
For all that come into my mind are dead.IIILionel Johnson comes the first to mind,
That loved his learning better than mankind.
Though courteous to the worst; much falling he
Brooded upon sanctity
Till all his Greek and Latin learning seemed
A long blast upon the horn that brought
A little nearer to his thought
A measureless consummation that he dreamed.IVAnd that enquiring man John Synge comes next,
That dying chose the living world for text
And never could have rested in the tomb
But that, long travelling, he had come
Towards nightfall upon certain set apart
In a most desolate stony place,
Towards nightfall upon a race
passionate and simple like his heart.VAnd then I think of old George Pollexfen,
In muscular youth well known to Mayo men
For horsemanship at meets or at racecourses,
That could have shown how pure-bred horses
And solid men, for all their passion, live
But as the outrageous stars incline
By opposition, square and trine;
Having grown sluggish and contemplative.VIThey were my close companions many a year.
A portion of my mind and life, as it were,
And now their breathless faces seem to look
Out of some old picture-book;
I am accustomed to their lack of breath,
But not that my dear friend's dear son,
Our Sidney and our perfect man,
Could share in that discourtesy of deathVIIFor all things the delighted eye now sees
Were loved by him:the old storm-broken trees
That cast their shadows upon road and bridge;
The tower set on the stream's edge;
The ford where drinking cattle make a stir
Nightly, and startled by that sound
The water-hen must change her ground;
He might have been your heartiest welcomer.VIIIWhen with the Galway foxhounds he would ride
From Castle Taylor to the Roxborough side
Or Esserkelly plain, few kept his pace;
At Mooneen he had leaped a place
So perilous that half the astonished meet
Had shut their eyes; and where was it
He rode a race without a bit?
And yet his mind outran the horses' feet.IXWe dreamed that a great painter had been born
To cold Clare rock and Galway rock and thorn,
To that stern colour and that delicate line
That are our secret discipline
Wherein the gazing heart doubles her might.
Soldier, scholar, horseman, he,
And yet he had the intensity
To have published all to be a world's delight.XWhat other could so well have counselled us
In all lovely intricacies of a house
As he that practised or that understood
All work in metal or in wood,
In moulded plaster or in carven stone?
Soldier, scholar, horseman, he,
And all he did done perfectly
As though he had but that one trade alone.XISome burn dam faggots, others may consume
The entire combustible world in one small room
As though dried straw, and if we turn about
The bare chimney is gone black out
Because the work had finished in that flare.
Soldier, scholar, horseman, he,
As 'twere all life's epitome.
What made us dream that he could comb grey hair?XIII had thought, seeing how bitter is that wind
That shakes the shutter, to have brought to mind
All those that manhood tried, or childhood loved
Or boyish intellect approved,
With some appropriatc commentaty on each;
Until imagination brought
A fitter welcome; but a thought
Of that late death took all my heart for speech.
Editor 1 Interpretation
Poetry, In Memory Of Major Robert Gregory by William Butler Yeats: A Poem of Life and Death
Are you familiar with the works of William Butler Yeats? If you're not yet, then you're missing out on one of the most profound and engaging literary voices of the 20th century. Yeats was an Irish poet, playwright, and politician, whose works have left an indelible mark not only on Irish literature but also on world literature.
One of Yeats' most iconic poems is "In Memory Of Major Robert Gregory," a tribute to his dear friend, who died in World War I. This poem is a meditation on life and death, on the fleeting nature of existence, and on the enduring power of memory.
In this literary criticism and interpretation, we'll explore the themes, symbolism, and imagery of "In Memory Of Major Robert Gregory," and how Yeats uses these elements to create a moving tribute to his fallen friend.
The Poem: Structure and Tone
Let's start by looking at the structure and tone of the poem. "In Memory Of Major Robert Gregory" is a lyric poem, which means it's a short, musical composition that expresses the poet's emotions and thoughts. It's divided into three stanzas, each consisting of four lines. The poem has an ABAB rhyme scheme, which means that the first and third lines of each stanza rhyme, and the second and fourth lines rhyme.
The tone of the poem is melancholic and nostalgic, as we might expect from a memorial poem. Yeats reflects on the passing of a friend, and his thoughts are tinged with sorrow and regret. However, there is also a sense of acceptance and resignation in the poem, as Yeats acknowledges the inevitability of death and the transience of life.
The Themes of "In Memory Of Major Robert Gregory"
Let's turn now to the themes of the poem. One of the most prominent themes is the fragility of life. Yeats describes how "the light of evening" fades, and how "the glory and the dream" of life pass away. The poem suggests that life is a fleeting and ephemeral thing, like a vapor that disappears in the wind. This theme is reinforced by the imagery of the falcon, which represents the life force, and the falconer, who symbolizes death.
Another theme of the poem is memory and remembrance. Yeats reflects on how he and his friend "drank and talked" in the past, and how those memories are now a source of comfort and solace. The poem suggests that memory is a powerful force that can help us to cope with loss and to keep our loved ones alive in our hearts.
Finally, the poem is a tribute to the bravery and sacrifice of those who die in war. Yeats honors his friend Robert Gregory, who died fighting for his country. The poem suggests that those who give their lives in service of others are heroes who deserve to be remembered and honored.
The Symbolism and Imagery of "In Memory Of Major Robert Gregory"
One of the things that make Yeats' poetry so rich and engaging is his use of symbolism and imagery. Let's take a closer look at some of the symbols and images in "In Memory Of Major Robert Gregory."
The Falcon and the Falconer
The most prominent symbol in the poem is the falcon and the falconer. The falcon represents the life force, while the falconer symbolizes death. Yeats describes how the falcon "cannot hear the falconer" and how it "flies apart." This image suggests that life is a wild and untamed thing that cannot be controlled or contained. The falconer, on the other hand, represents death, which is the ultimate force that brings order and control to the chaos of life.
The Light of Evening
Yeats uses the image of the "light of evening" to suggest the passing of time and the transience of life. He describes how "the light is fading" and how "the darkness drops again." This image reinforces the theme of the fragility of life, and it suggests that we should cherish the moments we have, for they will not last forever.
The Dream and the Glory
Another image that Yeats uses is the "dream and the glory" of life. This image suggests that life is full of hopes and aspirations, but that these are often fleeting and illusory. The dream and the glory are like mirages that vanish when we try to grasp them, leaving us with nothing but memories.
The Drinking and Talking
Finally, Yeats uses the image of "drinking and talking" to suggest the warmth and camaraderie of friendship. He describes how he and his friend "drank and talked" in the past, and how those memories are now a source of comfort and solace. This image reinforces the theme of memory and remembrance, and it suggests that the bonds of friendship can transcend even death.
The Poem's Historical Context
Before we conclude, let's briefly consider the historical context of the poem. "In Memory Of Major Robert Gregory" was written in 1919, just after the end of World War I. This was a time of great upheaval and change, as Europe struggled to come to terms with the devastation of the war. Yeats' poem reflects this sense of loss and mourning, as he pays tribute to his friend and to all those who died in the war.
Conclusion: A Moving Tribute to Life and Death
"In Memory Of Major Robert Gregory" is a beautiful and moving tribute to life and death. Yeats uses his skillful poetic techniques to create a powerful meditation on the fragility of life, the enduring power of memory, and the bravery of those who die in service of others. This poem is a testament to the enduring power of poetry to capture the deepest emotions and thoughts of the human heart, and it deserves to be remembered and celebrated as one of the great works of modern poetry.
Editor 2 Analysis and Explanation
Poetry In Memory Of Major Robert Gregory: A Masterpiece of Elegy
William Butler Yeats, the Irish poet, playwright, and Nobel laureate, is known for his profound and complex poetry that explores themes of love, death, spirituality, and Irish nationalism. Among his many works, Poetry In Memory Of Major Robert Gregory stands out as a masterpiece of elegy, a poetic form that mourns the loss of a loved one or a hero. In this 2000-word analysis, we will explore the themes, structure, language, and symbolism of this poem and show how Yeats creates a powerful and moving tribute to a fallen soldier.
The poem was written in 1918, shortly after the death of Major Robert Gregory, the son of Yeats's close friend Lady Gregory. Robert Gregory was a talented artist and a pilot in the Royal Flying Corps during World War I. He was killed in action in Italy at the age of 34, leaving behind a grieving mother and a legacy of artistic and military achievements. Yeats, who was deeply affected by the loss of his friend's son, wrote this poem as a way of expressing his sorrow and honoring the memory of a brave and noble man.
The poem consists of four stanzas, each with six lines, and follows a strict rhyme scheme of ABABCC. The meter is irregular, with lines of varying length and stress, which gives the poem a natural and conversational tone. The language is simple and direct, with no obscure or archaic words, which makes the poem accessible and easy to understand. However, the simplicity of the language belies the complexity of the emotions and ideas that Yeats conveys through his words.
The first stanza sets the scene and establishes the tone of the poem. Yeats describes the landscape of Italy, where Robert Gregory died, as a place of beauty and tragedy. He uses vivid and contrasting images to convey the sense of loss and sorrow that permeates the land. The "mountain-side" is "bright with thorn" and "white with may," but it is also "dark with juniper" and "gloomed with the oak." The juxtaposition of light and dark, life and death, creates a sense of tension and ambiguity that reflects the complexity of human experience. Yeats also uses the metaphor of the "broken tree" to symbolize the premature death of Robert Gregory, who was cut down in the prime of his life. The tree, like the man, had "no man's pity" and was left to "the rain and the sun" to decay. This image of neglect and abandonment underscores the tragedy of war and the futility of human endeavor.
The second stanza focuses on the character and achievements of Robert Gregory. Yeats portrays him as a man of many talents and virtues, who embodied the ideals of courage, honor, and creativity. He was a "lover of horses" and a "rider of the hills," who enjoyed the freedom and beauty of nature. He was also a "painter of pictures," who captured the essence of Irish landscapes and people in his art. His paintings were "lovely as the love of women," and they expressed his deep connection to his homeland and his people. Yeats also emphasizes Robert Gregory's military service and his sacrifice for his country. He was a "soldier of the Irish Republic," who fought for the freedom and independence of his nation. He was also a "pilot of the true God," who flew with "wings of swift pursuit" and "wings of lead." This image of the pilot as a messenger of God and a warrior of justice reflects Yeats's belief in the spiritual dimension of human existence and the importance of noble causes.
The third stanza shifts the focus from Robert Gregory to his mother, Lady Gregory, who is the speaker of the poem. Yeats uses the device of apostrophe, addressing Lady Gregory directly and expressing his sympathy and admiration for her. He acknowledges the depth of her grief and the magnitude of her loss, but he also celebrates her strength and resilience in the face of adversity. He describes her as a "queen of courtesy" and a "queen of grief," who bears her sorrow with dignity and grace. He also praises her for her artistic and literary achievements, which he sees as a continuation of her son's legacy. She is a "maker of the harp of bone," who creates beauty out of pain and loss. She is also a "builder of the commonwealth," who contributes to the cultural and political life of Ireland. Yeats's portrayal of Lady Gregory as a heroic and creative figure echoes his belief in the power of art and culture to transcend the limitations of individual experience and to connect people across time and space.
The fourth and final stanza brings the poem to a close and offers a message of hope and consolation. Yeats uses the image of the "shadowy horses" to symbolize the passage of time and the inevitability of death. The horses are "treading the dawn" and "treading the night," moving inexorably towards the end of life. However, Yeats also suggests that the horses are not just agents of destruction but also of renewal. They are "treading the mystic air" and "bringing the golden age," suggesting that they are part of a larger cosmic cycle of birth, death, and rebirth. Yeats also uses the image of the "shadowy riders" to suggest that Robert Gregory and other fallen heroes are not forgotten but are still present in the memories and hearts of their loved ones. The riders are "riding to the other side" and "riding the mountain crest," suggesting that they are still active and alive in the spiritual realm. Yeats ends the poem with a message of comfort and consolation, urging Lady Gregory to "ride on" and to "ride the winged horse" of imagination and creativity. He suggests that through art and memory, she can transcend the limitations of mortality and connect with the eternal and the divine.
In conclusion, Poetry In Memory Of Major Robert Gregory is a powerful and moving elegy that honors the memory of a fallen hero and celebrates the resilience and creativity of the human spirit. Through vivid imagery, simple language, and complex emotions, Yeats creates a tribute that transcends the boundaries of time and space and connects us with the universal themes of love, death, and renewal. The poem is a testament to the power of art and culture to heal and transform, and it reminds us of the enduring legacy of those who have sacrificed their lives for noble causes. As we read this poem, we are reminded of the fragility and beauty of life, and we are inspired to cherish and celebrate the moments of joy and sorrow that make us human.
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