'Ulysses' by Alfred Lord Tennyson
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1842It little profits that an idle king,
By this still hearth, among these barren crags,
Matched with an aged wife, I mete and dole
Unequal laws unto a savage race,
That hoard, and sleep, and feed, and know not me.I cannot rest from travel: I will drink
Life to the lees: all times I have enjoyed
Greatly, have suffered greatly, both with those
That loved me, and alone; on shore, and when
Through scudding drifts the rainy Hyades
Vest the dim sea: I am become a name;
For always roaming with a hungry heart
Much have I seen and known; cities of men
And manners, climates, councils, governments,
Myself not least, but honoured of them all;
And drunk delight of battle with my peers;
Far on the ringing plains of windy Troy.
I am part of all that I have met;
Yet all experience is an arch wherethrough
Gleams that untravelled world, whose margin fades
For ever and for ever when I move.
How dull it is to pause, to make an end,
To rust unburnished, not to shine in use!
As though to breath were life. Life piled on life
Were all to little, and of one to me
Little remains: but every hour is saved
From that eternal silence, something more,
A bringer of new things; and vile it were
For some three suns to store and hoard myself,
And this gray spirit yearning in desire
To follow knowledge like a sinking star,
Beyond the utmost bound of human thought.This is my son, mine own Telemachus,
To whom I leave the scepter and the isle-
Well-loved of me, discerning to fulfill
This labour, by slow prudence to make mild
A rugged people, and through soft degrees
Subdue them to the useful and the good.
Most blameless is he, centered in the sphere
Of common duties, decent not to fail
In offices of tenderness, and pay
Meet adoration to my household gods,
When I am gone. He works his work, I mine.There lies the port; the vessel puffs her sail:
There gloom the dark broad seas. My mariners,
Souls that have toiled, and wrought, and thought with me-
That ever with a frolic welcome took
The thunder and the sunshine, and opposed
Free hearts, free foreheads-you and I are old;
Old age had yet his honour and his toil;
Death closes all: but something ere the end,
Some work of noble note, may yet be done,
Not unbecoming men that strove with Gods.
The lights begin to twinkle from the rocks:
The long day wanes: the slow moon climbs: the deep
Moans round with many voices. Come, my friends,
'Tis not too late to seek a newer world.
Push off, and sitting well in order smite
The sounding furrows; for my purpose holds
To sail beyond the sunset, and the baths
Of all the western stars, until I die.
It may be that the gulfs will wash us down:
It may be we shall touch the Happy Isles,
And see the great Achilles, whom we knew.
Though much is taken, much abides; and though
We are not now that strength which in the old days
Moved earth and heaven; that which we are, we are,
One equal-temper of heroic hearts,
Made weak by time and fate, but strong in will
To strive, to seek, to find, and not to yield.
Editor 1 Interpretation
Ulysses by Alfred Lord Tennyson: An Epic Journey of Self-Discovery
Ulysses, the legendary hero of the Trojan War, returns home to Ithaca after twenty years of wandering. However, instead of finding peace and rest, Ulysses feels restless and unsatisfied with his mundane life. In his famous poem, Ulysses, Alfred Lord Tennyson captures the essence of the hero's yearning for adventure and his quest for self-discovery.
The Form and Style of Ulysses
Tennyson wrote Ulysses in 1833, in his mid-twenties, but he revised and polished it over the years. The poem has 70 lines, divided into four stanzas of varying length and structure, with each line written in iambic pentameter. The poem has a loose, irregular rhyme scheme, with occasional rhyming couplets and triplets.
The poem's style is grand and epic, with the use of elevated language, metaphors, and allusions to Greek mythology. Tennyson employs the first-person point of view, with Ulysses as the speaker who addresses his old comrades, the mariners, and his son, Telemachus.
The Themes and Motifs of Ulysses
Ulysses is a complex poem that explores several themes and motifs, such as:
The Quest for Adventure and Glory
Ulysses is a restless and ambitious hero who longs for new challenges and experiences. He feels bored and frustrated with his mundane life as a ruler and husband, and he yearns for the glory and excitement of his youth. Ulysses expresses his desire to sail the seas again, to explore new lands, and to battle monsters and enemies.
The Search for Self-Identity and Meaning
Ulysses is also a reflective and introspective hero who seeks to understand himself and his purpose in life. He realizes that he is not satisfied with his achievements and status, and he fears that he will be forgotten by history. Ulysses wants to live a life of significance, to leave a legacy, and to transcend his mortal existence.
The Paradox of Aging and Youth
Ulysses is an aging hero who experiences the physical and mental decline of old age, but he also retains the vitality and spirit of youth. He acknowledges his mortality and the inevitability of death, but he also refuses to surrender to it. Ulysses believes that he can still achieve greatness and adventure, despite his age and limitations.
The Irony of Domesticity and Heroism
Ulysses is torn between his love for his family and his duty as a hero. He feels guilty for leaving his wife, Penelope, and his son, Telemachus, behind, but he also believes that his destiny lies beyond his home. Ulysses sees his domestic life as a burden and a distraction, but he also values the love and loyalty of his family.
The Interpretation of Ulysses
Ulysses is a timeless poem that resonates with readers of all ages and cultures. Its themes and motifs are universal and profound, and its language and style are powerful and evocative. Ulysses can be interpreted in many ways, but here are some possible readings:
Ulysses as a Romantic Hero
Ulysses can be seen as a representative of the Romantic hero, who rebels against the norms and conventions of society and seeks personal fulfillment and freedom. Ulysses embodies the Romantic ideals of individualism, creativity, and passion, and he rejects the bourgeois values of stability, conformity, and domesticity. Ulysses is a rebel who refuses to accept his fate and his role as a ruler and a husband, and who seeks to follow his dreams and his inner voice.
Ulysses as a Tragic Hero
Ulysses can also be seen as a tragic hero, who is doomed to suffer and to fail, despite his noble intentions and his heroic deeds. Ulysses embodies the tragic flaw of hubris, or excessive pride, which leads him to overestimate his abilities and to underestimate his limitations. Ulysses believes that he can conquer any challenge and overcome any obstacle, but he also ignores the consequences of his actions and the needs of his loved ones. Ulysses is a tragic hero who realizes too late the price of his ambition and his neglect.
Ulysses as an Existential Hero
Ulysses can also be seen as an existential hero, who confronts the ultimate questions of human existence and meaning. Ulysses embodies the existential themes of freedom, choice, and authenticity, and he rejects the deterministic and meaningless view of life. Ulysses believes that he is the master of his fate and the captain of his soul, and he chooses to live a life of passion and adventure, rather than a life of safety and comfort. Ulysses is an existential hero who creates his own values and his own destiny, despite the absurdity and the uncertainty of life.
The Literary Significance of Ulysses
Ulysses is not only a great poem in its own right, but it also has a significant influence on the literary and cultural history of the English language. Ulysses inspired countless poets, writers, and artists, who admired its style, its themes, and its hero. Ulysses also represented a shift in the Victorian literary scene, from the moralistic and sentimental values of the early period to the more complex and ambiguous values of the later period. Ulysses challenged the traditional views of heroism, morality, and gender roles, and it opened up new possibilities for the modernist and postmodernist movements.
The Conclusion of Ulysses
Ulysses ends with a powerful and memorable line, which summarizes the hero's attitude towards life and death:
"To strive, to seek, to find, and not to yield."
This line encapsulates the essence of Ulysses's journey, and it also resonates with the reader's own quest for meaning and purpose. Ulysses is a timeless poem that invites us to explore our own inner selves and our own external world, and to embrace the challenges and the wonders of life. Ulysses is a poem that celebrates the human spirit and the human condition, and that reminds us of the beauty and the tragedy of existence.
Editor 2 Analysis and Explanation
Ulysses, a poem written by Alfred Lord Tennyson, is a classic piece of literature that has stood the test of time. This poem is a monologue spoken by the Greek hero Ulysses, who is also known as Odysseus. The poem is a reflection on his life and his desire to continue living a life of adventure and exploration. In this analysis, we will explore the themes, structure, and language used in the poem.
The poem is divided into three sections, each with a different focus. The first section introduces Ulysses and his current situation. He is an old man who has returned home after years of wandering and fighting. He is now bored with his life and longs for adventure. He speaks of his desire to leave again and explore the world, even though he knows that he is old and that his time is running out.
The second section of the poem is a reflection on Ulysses' past. He speaks of his adventures and the battles he has fought. He remembers the people he has met and the places he has been. He speaks of his desire to continue living a life of adventure and exploration, even though he knows that it will be difficult.
The third section of the poem is a call to action. Ulysses speaks to his men, urging them to join him on his next adventure. He speaks of the dangers they will face and the hardships they will endure, but he also speaks of the rewards they will receive. He urges them to be brave and to follow him into the unknown.
One of the main themes of the poem is the desire for adventure and exploration. Ulysses is a man who has spent his life exploring the world and fighting battles. He is not content to sit at home and grow old. He longs for the excitement and danger of the unknown. This theme is reflected in the language used in the poem. Tennyson uses words such as "sail," "voyage," and "explore" to convey Ulysses' desire for adventure.
Another theme of the poem is the passage of time. Ulysses is an old man who knows that his time is running out. He speaks of his desire to make the most of the time he has left. This theme is reflected in the language used in the poem. Tennyson uses words such as "time," "age," and "death" to convey Ulysses' awareness of the passage of time.
The structure of the poem is also significant. The poem is written in blank verse, which is unrhymed iambic pentameter. This gives the poem a natural and conversational tone. The poem is also divided into three sections, each with a different focus. This structure allows Tennyson to explore different aspects of Ulysses' character and his desire for adventure.
The language used in the poem is also significant. Tennyson uses a variety of literary devices to convey Ulysses' character and his desire for adventure. For example, he uses alliteration to create a sense of rhythm and repetition. He also uses metaphor and imagery to create vivid descriptions of Ulysses' adventures.
In conclusion, Ulysses is a classic poem that explores the themes of adventure, exploration, and the passage of time. The structure and language of the poem are significant in conveying Ulysses' character and his desire for adventure. This poem has stood the test of time and continues to be a beloved piece of literature.
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