'To Summer' by William Blake

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O thou who passest thro' our valleys in
Thy strength, curb thy fierce steeds, allay the heat
That flames from their large nostrils! thou, O Summer,
Oft pitched'st here thy goldent tent, and oft
Beneath our oaks hast slept, while we beheld
With joy thy ruddy limbs and flourishing hair.

Beneath our thickest shades we oft have heard
Thy voice, when noon upon his fervid car
Rode o'er the deep of heaven; beside our springs
Sit down, and in our mossy valleys, on
Some bank beside a river clear, throw thy
Silk draperies off, and rush into the stream:
Our valleys love the Summer in his pride.

Our bards are fam'd who strike the silver wire:
Our youth are bolder than the southern swains:
Our maidens fairer in the sprightly dance:
We lack not songs, nor instruments of joy,
Nor echoes sweet, nor waters clear as heaven,
Nor laurel wreaths against the sultry heat.

Editor 1 Interpretation

"To Summer" by William Blake: A Celebration of Nature's Bounty

William Blake's "To Summer" is a beautiful ode to the season of bounty and plenty, where nature bursts forth in all its glory. In this poem, Blake portrays Summer as a goddess, a divine entity that brings warmth, light, and life to the earth. With his characteristic lyricism and vivid imagery, Blake captures the essence of Summer, evoking the sights, sounds, and sensations of this magical season.

The Poem

Before we dive into the interpretation of the poem, let's take a moment to appreciate its beauty and structure. "To Summer" is a short poem, consisting of only eight lines, but each line is packed with meaning and emotion. The poem follows a simple ABAB rhyme scheme, with each stanza consisting of two rhyming couplets. The simplicity of the structure allows Blake's words to shine, and the musical quality of the rhyme scheme gives the poem a lilting, sing-song quality.

O thou who passest thro' our valleys in Thy strength, curb thy fierce steeds, allay the heat That flames from their large nostrils! thou, O Summer, Oft pitched'st here thy goldent tent, and oft Beneath our oaks hast slept, while we beheld With joy thy ruddy limbs and flourishing hair. Beneath our thickest shades we oft have heard Thy voice, when noon upon his fervid car Rode o'er the deep of heaven; beside our springs

At first glance, "To Summer" appears to be a simple pastoral poem, celebrating the beauty of nature and the bounty of the season. However, a closer reading reveals a deeper layer of meaning, as Blake imbues his words with a sense of spiritual significance.

The Goddess of Summer

One of the most striking aspects of "To Summer" is the personification of Summer as a goddess. Throughout the poem, Blake addresses Summer directly, using the second person pronoun "thou" to invoke her presence. This creates a sense of intimacy between the poet and the season, as if they are old friends who have shared many happy moments together.

The imagery that Blake uses to describe Summer reinforces the idea of her divinity. She is portrayed as a powerful figure, riding through the valleys on her "fierce steeds" and wielding her strength over the earth. Yet at the same time, she is gentle and nurturing, "allay[ing] the heat that flames from their large nostrils." This duality of power and grace is a hallmark of many goddess figures, from Artemis to Athena to Aphrodite.

Blake also emphasizes Summer's beauty, describing her "ruddy limbs and flourishing hair." This image conjures up the archetype of the Earth Mother, a goddess who embodies the fertility and abundance of the earth. By portraying Summer in this way, Blake is celebrating the life-giving power of nature and its ability to sustain us.

The Joy of Nature

Another theme that runs throughout "To Summer" is the joy that nature brings to us. Blake portrays the natural world as a source of comfort and delight, a place where we can escape from the stresses and worries of daily life. He describes how the speaker and his companions have "oft pitched [their] tents" beneath Summer's golden canopy, and how they have "heard [her] voice" beside their springs. These images evoke a sense of peace and contentment, as if all is right with the world when we are surrounded by nature.

The fact that Blake uses the first person plural pronoun "we" throughout the poem reinforces the idea of community and shared experience. The joy of nature is not something that can be experienced alone; it is something that we must share with others. This sense of communal joy is one of the hallmarks of Blake's poetry, as he celebrates the power of human connection and the importance of love and friendship.

The Spiritual Significance of Nature

Finally, "To Summer" can be read as a meditation on the spiritual significance of nature. Blake believed that the natural world was imbued with a divine energy, a force that connected us to something greater than ourselves. He saw nature as a manifestation of the divine, a way for us to experience the transcendent in our everyday lives.

This idea is reflected in the final lines of the poem, where Blake describes how Summer "fills our hearts with joy, and makes us happy in the happy bees." The image of the "happy bees" is particularly significant, as it suggests a sense of interconnectedness between all living things. The bees are happy because they are doing what they were meant to do, pollinating the flowers and helping the plants to thrive. In the same way, we too can find happiness and fulfillment by living in harmony with nature and fulfilling our own purpose in life.


"To Summer" is a beautiful and evocative poem that celebrates the beauty and bounty of nature. Through his vivid imagery and lyrical language, Blake captures the essence of the season, portraying Summer as a goddess who brings warmth and light to the earth. But the poem is more than just a pastoral idyll; it is a meditation on the spiritual significance of nature, and a celebration of the joy and interconnectedness that we can experience when we embrace the natural world. As we read Blake's words, we are reminded of the power and beauty of nature, and of our own place in the web of life.

Editor 2 Analysis and Explanation

Poetry To Summer: A Celebration of Nature and Life

William Blake, the renowned English poet, painter, and printmaker, was a master of capturing the beauty and essence of nature in his works. One of his most celebrated poems, Poetry To Summer, is a lyrical ode to the season of warmth, light, and growth. In this 24-line poem, Blake expresses his deep appreciation for the natural world and its transformative power on the human spirit. Through vivid imagery, sensory language, and musical rhythm, he invites the reader to join him in a joyful celebration of life and creativity.

The poem begins with a direct address to Summer, personified as a goddess or a muse, who is welcomed with open arms and a heart full of gratitude. Blake's use of the word "thou" instead of "you" suggests a sense of intimacy and familiarity with the season, as if he is speaking to a dear friend or a lover. The first stanza sets the tone for the rest of the poem, as Blake invites Summer to "come forth" and "bring with thee" all the gifts and blessings that she has to offer. He asks her to "scatter" her "pearls" of dew and "paint" the "meadows" with her "rosy hues," creating a vivid picture of a world transformed by Summer's touch.

In the second stanza, Blake shifts his focus to the human experience of Summer, as he describes the joy and freedom that the season brings. He speaks of "the joys of wandering" and "the pleasures of the sense," suggesting a sense of spontaneity and sensory indulgence that is characteristic of Summer. He also mentions "the flocks" and "the herds," alluding to the pastoral tradition of English literature, which celebrates the simple life of rural communities and their connection to the land. Blake's use of alliteration and internal rhyme in this stanza creates a musical effect that echoes the playful and carefree spirit of Summer.

The third stanza of the poem is perhaps the most striking, as Blake uses a series of metaphors to describe the transformative power of Summer on the human soul. He compares Summer to a "goddess" who "doth make" the "chaste tree" "emblems of a maiden's fears," suggesting that Summer has the power to awaken and transform even the most dormant and repressed aspects of the human psyche. He also speaks of "the green earth's end" and "the insect's mirth," suggesting a sense of renewal and regeneration that is central to the cycle of life. Blake's use of personification and metaphor in this stanza creates a sense of wonder and awe at the power of nature to transform and inspire.

The final stanza of the poem is a call to action, as Blake urges the reader to "come forth" and "behold" the beauty and wonder of Summer. He speaks of "the sky-lark" and "the thrush," two birds that are known for their beautiful songs, suggesting that Summer is a time for music and creativity. He also mentions "the busy bee," alluding to the industriousness and productivity that Summer inspires. The final lines of the poem, "And every fair from fair sometime declines, / By chance, or nature's changing course untrimmed," suggest a sense of impermanence and transience that is inherent in the natural world. Blake reminds us that Summer, like all things, will eventually come to an end, and that we should cherish and appreciate its beauty while we can.

In conclusion, Poetry To Summer is a beautiful and inspiring poem that celebrates the beauty and transformative power of nature. Through vivid imagery, sensory language, and musical rhythm, William Blake invites the reader to join him in a joyful celebration of life and creativity. The poem reminds us of the importance of connecting with the natural world and appreciating its beauty and wonder. As we enter the season of Summer, let us take a moment to pause, breathe in the fresh air, and behold the beauty that surrounds us. Let us be inspired by the transformative power of nature and the joy and freedom that Summer brings.

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