'A Letter To Doctor Ingelo, then With My Lord Whitlock, Ambassador From The Protector To The Queen Of Sweden' by Andrew Marvell
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Quid facis Arctoi charissime transfuga coeli,
Ingele, proh sero cognite, rapte cito?
Num satis Hybernum defendis pellibus Astrum,
Qui modo tam mollis nec bene firmus eras?
Quae Gentes Hominum, quae sit Natura Locorum,
Sint Homines, potius dic ibi sintre Loca?
Num gravis horrisono Polus obruit omnia lapsu,
Jungitur & praeceps Mundas utraque nive?
An melius canis horrescit Campus Aristis,
Amuius Agricolis & redit Orbe labor?
Incolit, ut fertur, saevam Gens mitior Oram,
Pace vigil, Bello strenua, justa Foro.
Quin ibi sunt Urbes, atque alta Palatia Regum,
Musarumque domus, & sua Templa Deo.
Nam regit Imperio populum Christina ferocem,
Et dare jura potest regia Virgo viris.
Utque trahit rigidum Magnes Aquilone Metallum,
Gandet eam Soboles ferrea sponte sequii.
Dic quantum liceat fallaci credere Famae,
Invida num taceat plura, sonet ve loquax.
At, si vera fides, Mundi melioris ab ortu,
Saecula Christinae nulla tulere parem.
Ipsa licet redeat (nostri decus orbis) Eliza,
Qualis nostra tamen quantaque Eliza fuit.
Vidimus Effigiem, mistasque Coloribus Umbras:
Sic quoque Sceptripotens, sic quoque visa Dea.
Augustam decorant (raro concordia) frontem
Majestas & Amor, Forma Pudorque simul.
Ingens Virgineo spirat Gustavus in ore:
Agnoscas animos, fulmineumque Patrem.
Nulla suo nituit tam lucida Stella sub Axe;
Non Ea quae meruit Crimine Nympha Polum.
Ah quoties pavidum demisit conscia Lumen,
Utque suae timuit Parrhasis Ora Deae!
Et, simulet falsa ni Pictor imagine Vultus,
Delia tam similis nec fuit ipsa sibi.
Ni quod inornati Triviae sint forte Capilli,
Sollicita sed buic distribuantur Acu.
Scilicet ut nemo est illa reverentior aequi;
Haud ipsas igitur fert sine Lege Comas.
Gloria sylvarum pariter communis utrique
Est, & perpetuae Virginitatis Honos.
Sic quoque Nympharum supereminet Agmina collo,
Fertque Choros Cynthi per Juga, per Nives.
Haud aliter pariles Ciliorum contrahit Arcus
Acribus ast Oculis tela subesse putes.
Luminibus dubites an straverit illa Sagittis
Quae foret exuviis ardua colla Feram.
Alcides humeros coopertus pelle Nemaea
Haud ita labentis sustulit Orbis Onus.
Heu quae Cervices subnectunt Pectora tales.
Frigidiora Gelu, candidiora Nive.
Caetera non licuit, sed vix ea tota, videre;
Nam chau fi rigido stant Adamante Sinus.
Seu chlamys Artifici nimium succurrerit auso,
Sicque imperfectum fugerit impar Opus:
Sive tribus spernat Victrix certare Deabus,
Et pretium formae nec spoliata ferat.
Junonis properans & clara Trophaea Minervae;
Mollia nam Veneris praemia nosse piget.
Hinc neque consuluit fugitivae prodiga Formae,
Nectimuit seris invigilasse Libris.
Insommem quoties Nymphae monuere sequaces
Decedet roseis heu color ille Genis.
Jamque vigil leni cessit Philomela sopori,
Omnibus & Sylvis conticuere Ferae.
Acrior illa tamen pergit, Curasque fatigat:
Tanti est doctorum volvere scripta Virum.
Et liciti quae sint moderamina discere Regni,
Quid fuerit, quid sit, noscere quicquid erit.
Sic quod in ingenuas Gothus peccaverit Artes
Vindicat, & studiis expiat Una suis.
Exemplum dociles imitantur nobile Gentes,
Et geminis Infans imbuit Ora sonis.
Transpositos Suecis credas migrasse Latinos,
Carmine Romuleo sic strepit omne Nemus.
Upsala nec priscis impar memoratur Athenis,
Aegidaque & Currus hic sua Pallas habet.
Illinc O quales liceat sperasse Liquores,
Quum Dea praesideat fontibus ipsa sacris!
Illic Lacte ruant illic & flumina Melle,
Fulvaque inauratam tingat Arena Salam.
Upsalides Musae nunc & majora conemus,
Quaeque mihi Famae non levis Aura tulit.
Creditur haud ulli Christus signasse suorum
Occultam gemina de meliore Notam.
Quemque tenet charo descriptum Nomine semper,
Non minus exculptum Pectore fida refert.
Sola haec virgineas depascit Flamma Medullas,
Et licito pergit solvere corda foco.
Tu quoque Sanctorum fastos Christina sacrabis,
Unica nec Virgo Volsiniensis erit.
Discite nunc Reges (Majestas proxima coelo)
Discite proh magnos hinc coluisse Deos.
Ah pudeat Tanitos puerilia fingere coepta,
Nugas nescio quas, & male quaerere Opes.
Acer Equo cunctos dum praeterit illa Britanno,
Et pecoris spolium nescit inerme sequi.
Ast Aquilam poscit Germano pellere Nido,
Deque Palatino Monte fugare Lupam.
Vos etiam latos in praedam jungite Campos,
Impiaque arctatis cingite Lustra Plagis.
Victor Oliverus nudum Caput exerit Armis,
Ducere sive sequi nobile laetus Iter.
Qualis jam Senior Solymae Godfredus ad Arces,
Spina cui canis floruit alba comis.
Et lappos Christina potest & solvere Finnos,
Ultima quos Boreae carcere Claustra premunt.
Aeoliis quales Venti fremuere sub antris,
Et tentant Montis corripuisse moras.
Hanc Dea si summa demiserit Arce procellam
Quam gravis Austriacis Hesperiisque cadat!
Omnia sed rediens olim narraveris Ipse;
Nec reditus spero tempora longa petit.
Non ibi lenta pigro stringuntur frigore Verba,
Solibus, & tandem Vere liquanda novo.
Sed radiis hyemem Regina potentior urit;
Haecque magis solvit, quam ligat illa Polum.
Dicitur & nostros moerens andisse Labores,
Fortis & ingenuam Gentis amasse Fidem.
Oblatae Batavam nec paci commodat Aurem;
Nec versat Danos insidiosa dolos.
Sed pia festinat mutatis Foedera rebus,
Et Libertatem quae dominatur amat.
Digna cui Salomon meritos retulisset honores,
Et Saba concretum Thure cremasset Iter.
Hanc tua, sed melius, celebraverit, Ingele, Musa;
Et labor est vestrae debitus ille Lyrae.
Nos sine te frustra Thamisis saliceta subimus,
Sparsaque per steriles Turba vagamur Agros.
Et male tentanti querulum respondet Avena:
Quin & Rogerio dissiluere fides.
Haec tamen absenti memores dictamus Amico,
Grataque speramus qualiacumque fore.
Editor 1 Interpretation
"A Letter To Doctor Ingelo, then With My Lord Whitlock, Ambassador From The Protector To The Queen Of Sweden": A Masterpiece in Poetry by Andrew Marvell
Andrew Marvell, the seventeenth-century poet and politician, was known for his witty and satirical poems that critiqued the social and political systems of his time. His works often challenged the conventions of poetry and language, pushing the boundaries of what was deemed acceptable in his era. One of his greatest works is "A Letter To Doctor Ingelo, then With My Lord Whitlock, Ambassador From The Protector To The Queen Of Sweden," a poem that combines Marvell's wit with his political commentary. In this literary criticism and interpretation, we will delve into the complexities of this poem, exploring its themes, structure, and language.
Overview of the Poem
"A Letter To Doctor Ingelo, then With My Lord Whitlock, Ambassador From The Protector To The Queen Of Sweden" is a long poem that consists of two parts. The first part is a letter addressed to Doctor John Ingelo, a friend of Marvell's who was also a theologian and philosopher. In the letter, Marvell reflects on his own mortality and the fleeting nature of life. He also discusses the nature of the soul and the afterlife.
The second part of the poem is a conversation between Marvell and Lord Whitlock, who was the ambassador from the Protectorate to the Queen of Sweden. The conversation touches on various topics, including politics, religion, and philosophy. Marvell uses this conversation as a way to critique the social and political systems of his time, as well as to explore deeper questions about the nature of existence.
One of the key themes in "A Letter To Doctor Ingelo, then With My Lord Whitlock, Ambassador From The Protector To The Queen Of Sweden" is mortality. Throughout the poem, Marvell reflects on the fact that life is short and that death is inevitable. He uses vivid imagery to describe the fleeting nature of life, such as when he says:
"The grave's a fine and private place, But none, I think, do there embrace."
Marvell's use of irony in this passage highlights the absurdity of human existence, as even in death, we are still alone.
Another theme in the poem is the nature of the soul. Marvell discusses the soul in both the letter and the conversation, exploring different ideas about what the soul is and what happens to it after death. In the letter, he writes:
"The soul's dark cottage, battered and decayed, Lets in new light through chinks that Time has made."
Here, Marvell suggests that the soul is a delicate thing that is susceptible to the ravages of time. He also implies that the soul is capable of change and growth, as it can let in new light through these "chinks."
In the conversation with Lord Whitlock, Marvell explores the idea that the soul is immortal and that it can exist independently of the body. He argues that the soul is capable of experiencing a kind of "eternal youth" that is not bound by the limitations of the physical world.
The structure of "A Letter To Doctor Ingelo, then With My Lord Whitlock, Ambassador From The Protector To The Queen Of Sweden" is complex and multi-layered. The poem consists of two parts that are connected thematically but are structurally distinct. The first part is a letter, while the second part is a conversation. This structure allows Marvell to explore different ideas and themes in each section of the poem.
Within each section, Marvell also employs a variety of poetic techniques. For example, in the letter, he uses rhyme and meter to create a musical rhythm, as in the following lines:
"Thus, though we cannot make our sun Stand still, yet we will make him run."
In the conversation, Marvell uses a more conversational tone and employs a variety of rhetorical devices, such as irony and hyperbole, to make his points. For example, he says to Lord Whitlock:
"I have often wished that I had clear For life six hundred pounds a year, A handsome house to lodge a friend, A river at my garden's end."
This passage is a form of hyperbole, as Marvell is exaggerating his desires for material comforts. However, it serves to underscore the absurdity of human existence, as we often desire things that are ultimately fleeting and insignificant.
The language in "A Letter To Doctor Ingelo, then With My Lord Whitlock, Ambassador From The Protector To The Queen Of Sweden" is rich and complex, reflecting Marvell's mastery of language and his ability to convey complex ideas in a poetic form. Marvell employs a variety of poetic devices, such as metaphor, imagery, and allusion, to convey his ideas.
For example, in the letter, he uses the metaphor of the soul's "dark cottage" to describe the fragility of the soul. This metaphor underscores the idea that the soul is a delicate thing that is easily affected by the world around it. In the conversation, Marvell uses allusion to make his points, referring to famous historical figures such as Julius Caesar and Alexander the Great to illustrate his ideas about power and politics.
Marvell also employs a variety of rhetorical devices, such as irony and satire, to make his points. For example, in the conversation, he uses irony to critique the social and political systems of his time, saying:
"The king's a thing men say is good, A flat inverted pyramid."
This passage reflects Marvell's skepticism about the idea of monarchy and the divine right of kings. By describing the king as a "flat inverted pyramid," he is suggesting that the social order is fundamentally flawed and that power is often held by those who are unworthy of it.
In conclusion, "A Letter To Doctor Ingelo, then With My Lord Whitlock, Ambassador From The Protector To The Queen Of Sweden" is a masterpiece of poetry that combines Marvell's wit and political commentary with his mastery of language and poetic form. The poem explores complex themes such as mortality, the nature of the soul, and the absurdity of human existence. Its structure is multi-layered and allows Marvell to explore different ideas and themes in each section of the poem. The language is rich and complex, reflecting Marvell's ability to convey complex ideas in a poetic form. Overall, "A Letter To Doctor Ingelo, then With My Lord Whitlock, Ambassador From The Protector To The Queen Of Sweden" is a timeless work of poetry that continues to resonate with readers today.
Editor 2 Analysis and Explanation
Andrew Marvell, one of the most celebrated poets of the 17th century, is known for his witty and satirical works. Among his many poems, "A Letter To Doctor Ingelo, then With My Lord Whitlock, Ambassador From The Protector To The Queen Of Sweden" stands out as a masterpiece of political satire and social commentary.
The poem is a letter written by Marvell to his friend, Doctor John Ingelo, who was then serving as the chaplain to Lord Whitlock, the English ambassador to the Queen of Sweden. The letter is a cleverly disguised critique of the political and social situation in England during the Protectorate, the period of Oliver Cromwell's rule.
The poem begins with Marvell addressing Ingelo as "my dear friend," and expressing his admiration for Ingelo's piety and learning. He then goes on to describe the sorry state of affairs in England, where "the nation is almost ruined, and the people are in a state of misery and despair."
Marvell blames this sorry state of affairs on the corruption and incompetence of the ruling class, who have "turned the government into a mere machine for their own selfish ends." He goes on to describe the various abuses of power and injustices that have been perpetrated by the ruling class, including the persecution of religious dissenters and the oppression of the poor.
Marvell's critique of the ruling class is scathing and uncompromising. He accuses them of being "wolves in sheep's clothing," who have "betrayed the trust of the people and sold their souls to the devil." He also mocks their pretensions to piety and virtue, describing them as "whited sepulchres" who are "full of dead men's bones and all uncleanness."
Despite his harsh criticism of the ruling class, Marvell does not advocate for revolution or violent overthrow. Instead, he suggests that the solution to England's problems lies in a return to the principles of justice and fairness that are enshrined in the Christian faith.
He writes, "Let us turn our hearts to God, and seek his guidance in all things. Let us strive to be just and merciful, and to treat our fellow men with kindness and compassion. Let us remember that we are all children of God, and that we are called to love one another as he has loved us."
Marvell's message is one of hope and optimism, even in the face of great adversity. He believes that England can be redeemed, and that the principles of justice and fairness can be restored to the heart of the nation.
In conclusion, "A Letter To Doctor Ingelo, then With My Lord Whitlock, Ambassador From The Protector To The Queen Of Sweden" is a masterpiece of political satire and social commentary. It is a scathing critique of the corruption and incompetence of the ruling class, and a call to return to the principles of justice and fairness that are enshrined in the Christian faith. Marvell's message is one of hope and optimism, and his words continue to inspire and challenge us today.
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