'The Two Kings' by William Butler Yeats
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King Eochaid came at sundown to a wood
Westward of Tara. Hurrying to his queen
He had outridden his war-wasted men
That with empounded cattle trod the mire,
And where beech-trees had mixed a pale green light
With the ground-ivy's blue, he saw a stag
Whiter than curds, its eyes the tint of the sea.
Because it stood upon his path and seemed
More hands in height than any stag in the world
He sat with tightened rein and loosened mouth
Upon his trembling horse, then drove the spur;
But the stag stooped and ran at him, and passed,
Rending the horse's flank. King Eochaid reeled,
Then drew his sword to hold its levelled point
Against the stag. When horn and steel were met
The horn resounded as though it had been silver,
A sweet, miraculous, terrifying sound.
Horn locked in sword, they tugged and struggled there
As though a stag and unicorn were met
Among the African Mountains of the Moon,
Until at last the double horns, drawn backward,
Butted below the single and so pierced
The entrails of the horse. Dropping his sword
King Eochaid seized the horns in his strong hands
And stared into the sea-green eye, and so
Hither and thither to and fro they trod
Till all the place was beaten into mire.
The strong thigh and the agile thigh were met,
The hands that gathered up the might of the world,
And hoof and horn that had sucked in their speed
Amid the elaborate wilderness of the air.
Through bush they plunged and over ivied root,
And where the stone struck fire, while in the leaves
A squirrel whinnied and a bird screamed out;
But when at last he forced those sinewy flanks
Against a beech-bole, he threw down the beast
And knelt above it with drawn knife. On the instant
It vanished like a shadow, and a cry
So mournful that it seemed the cry of one
Who had lost some unimaginable treasure
Wandered between the blue and the green leaf
And climbed into the air, crumbling away,
Till all had seemed a shadow or a vision
But for the trodden mire, the pool of blood,
The disembowelled horse.
King Eochaid ran
Toward peopled Tara, nor stood to draw his breath
Until he came before the painted wall,
The posts of polished yew, circled with bronze,
Of the great door; but though the hanging lamps
Showed their faint light through the unshuttered windows,
Nor door, nor mouth, nor slipper made a noise,
Nor on the ancient beaten paths, that wound
From well-side or from plough-land, was there noisc;
Nor had there been the noise of living thing
Before him or behind, but that far off
On the horizon edge bellowed the herds.
Knowing that silence brings no good to kings,
And mocks returning victory, he passed
Between the pillars with a beating heart
And saw where in the midst of the great hall
pale-faced, alone upon a bench, Edain
Sat upright with a sword before her feet.
Her hands on either side had gripped the bench.
Her eyes were cold and steady, her lips tight.
Some passion had made her stone. Hearing a foot
She started and then knew whose foot it was;
But when he thought to take her in his arms
She motioned him afar, and rose and spoke:
'I have sent among the fields or to the woods
The fighting-men and servants of this house,
For I would have your judgment upon one
Who is self-accused. If she be innocent
She would not look in any known man's face
Till judgment has been given, and if guilty,
Would never look again on known man's face.'
And at these words hc paled, as she had paled,
Knowing that he should find upon her lips
The meaning of that monstrous day.
'You brought me where your brother Ardan sat
Always in his one seat, and bid me care him
Through that strange illness that had fixed him there.
And should he die to heap his burial-mound
And catve his name in Ogham.' Eochaid said,
'He lives?' 'He lives and is a healthy man.'
'While I have him and you it matters little
What man you have lost, what evil you have found.'
'I bid them make his bed under this roof
And carried him his food with my own hands,
And so the weeks passed by. But when I said,
"What is this trouble?" he would answer nothing,
Though always at my words his trouble grew;
And I but asked the more, till he cried out,
Weary of many questions: "There are things
That make the heart akin to the dumb stone."
Then I replied, "Although you hide a secret,
Hopeless and dear, or terrible to think on,
Speak it, that I may send through the wide world
For Medicine." Thereon he cried aloud
"Day after day you question me, and I,
Because there is such a storm amid my thoughts
I shall be carried in the gust, command,
Forbid, beseech and waste my breath." Then I:
"Although the thing that you have hid were evil,
The speaking of it could be no great wrong,
And evil must it be, if done 'twere worse
Than mound and stone that keep all virtue in,
And loosen on us dreams that waste our life,
Shadows and shows that can but turn the brain."
but finding him still silent I stooped down
And whispering that none but he should hear,
Said, "If a woman has put this on you,
My men, whether it please her or displease,
And though they have to cross the Loughlan waters
And take her in the middle of armed men,
Shall make her look upon her handiwork,
That she may quench the rick she has fired; and though
She may have worn silk clothes, or worn a crown,
She'II not be proud, knowing within her heart
That our sufficient portion of the world
Is that we give, although it be brief giving,
Happiness to children and to men."
Then he, driven by his thought beyond his thought,
And speaking what he would not though he would,
Sighed, "You, even you yourself, could work the cure!"
And at those words I rose and I went out
And for nine days he had food from other hands,
And for nine days my mind went whirling round
The one disastrous zodiac, muttering
That the immedicable mound's beyond
Our questioning, beyond our pity even.
But when nine days had gone I stood again
Before his chair and bending down my head
I bade him go when all his household slept
To an old empty woodman's house that's hidden
Westward of Tara, among the hazel-trees --
For hope would give his limbs the power -- and await
A friend that could, he had told her, work his cure
And would be no harsh friend.
When night had deepened,
I groped my way from beech to hazel wood,
Found that old house, a sputtering torch within,
And stretched out sleeping on a pile of skins
Ardan, and though I called to him and tried
To Shake him out of sleep, I could not rouse him.
I waited till the night was on the turn,
Then fearing that some labourer, on his way
To plough or pasture-land, might see me there,
Among the ivy-covered rocks,
As on the blue light of a sword, a man
Who had unnatural majesty, and eyes
Like the eyes of some great kite scouring the woods,
Stood on my path. Trembling from head to foot
I gazed at him like grouse upon a kite;
But with a voice that had unnatural music,
"A weary wooing and a long," he said,
"Speaking of love through other lips and looking
Under the eyelids of another, for it was my craft
That put a passion in the sleeper there,
And when I had got my will and drawn you here,
Where I may speak to you alone, my craft
Sucked up the passion out of him again
And left mere sleep. He'll wake when the sun wakes,
push out his vigorous limbs and rub his eyes,
And wonder what has ailed him these twelve months."
I cowered back upon the wall in terror,
But that sweet-sounding voice ran on: "Woman,
I was your husband when you rode the air,
Danced in the whirling foam and in the dust,
In days you have not kept in memory,
Being betrayed into a cradle, and I come
That I may claim you as my wife again."
I was no longer terrified -- his voice
Had half awakened some old memory --
Yet answered him, "I am King Eochaid's wife
And with him have found every happiness
Women can find." With a most masterful voice,
That made the body seem as it were a string
Under a bow, he cried, "What happiness
Can lovers have that know their happiness
Must end at the dumb stone? But where we build
Our sudden palaces in the still air
pleasure itself can bring no weariness.
Nor can time waste the cheek, nor is there foot
That has grown weary of the wandering dance,
Nor an unlaughing mouth, but mine that mourns,
Among those mouths that sing their sweethearts' praise,
Your empty bed." "How should I love," I answered,
"Were it not that when the dawn has lit my bed
And shown my husband sleeping there, I have sighcd,
'Your strength and nobleness will pass away'?
Or how should love be worth its pains were it not
That when he has fallen asleep within my atms,
Being wearied out, I love in man the child?
What can they know of love that do not know
She builds her nest upon a narrow ledge
Above a windy precipice?" Then he:
"Seeing that when you come to the deathbed
You must return, whether you would or no,
This human life blotted from memory,
Why must I live some thirty, forty years,
Alone with all this useless happiness?"
Thereon he seized me in his arms, but I
Thrust him away with both my hands and cried,
"Never will I believe there is any change
Can blot out of my memory this life
Sweetened by death, but if I could believe,
That were a double hunger in my lips
For what is doubly brief."
And now the shape
My hands were pressed to vanished suddenly.
I staggered, but a beech-tree stayed my fall,
And clinging to it I could hear the cocks
Crow upon Tara.'
King Eochaid bowed his head
And thanked her for her kindness to his brother,
For that she promised, and for that refused.
Thereon the bellowing of the empounded herds
Rose round the walls, and through the bronze-ringed door
Jostled and shouted those war-wasted men,
And in the midst King Eochaid's brother stood,
And bade all welcome, being ignorant.
Editor 1 Interpretation
The Two Kings: An Epic Exploration of Power and Ambition
William Butler Yeats' "The Two Kings" is a masterpiece of poetic storytelling that explores the themes of power, ambition, and the consequences of rivalry. This epic poem, written in 1897, takes the reader on a journey through a timeless landscape, where two kings battle for supremacy, and the fate of their kingdoms hangs in the balance. With rich imagery and vivid language, Yeats creates a world that is both fantastical and familiar, drawing readers into a world of magic and myth that speaks to the human experience.
A World of Myth and Magic
From the opening lines of the poem, Yeats sets the stage for a world of myth and magic, where anything is possible. The first stanza introduces us to the two kings, "one from the east, one from the west," whose kingdoms are separated by a vast desert. The imagery here is stunning, as Yeats describes the desert as a "wilderness of sand," where the wind howls and the sun beats down mercilessly. This is a world that is both beautiful and dangerous, where the elements themselves are part of the story.
As the poem progresses, we see more and more of this magical world, with its enchanted forests, dark mountains, and mysterious creatures. Yeats' use of language is particularly effective here, as he employs vivid metaphors and similes to bring the landscape to life. For example, when the two kings finally meet in battle, Yeats describes their armies as "two great serpents coiling for the spring," evoking a sense of primal power and danger.
The Rivalry of Kings
At its core, "The Two Kings" is a story of rivalry and ambition, as two powerful leaders battle for dominance. Yeats explores the nature of this rivalry in great detail, examining the motivations and desires of each king. The king from the east is driven by a need for power and conquest, seeing the other king as a threat to his own dominance. The king from the west, on the other hand, is motivated by a desire for peace and unity, seeing the other king as a potential ally.
This conflict between the two kings is at the heart of the story, driving the action forward and creating a sense of tension and drama. Yeats' use of language is particularly effective in conveying the emotional intensity of the rivalry, as he describes the two kings' emotions in vivid detail. For example, when the king from the west hears of the other king's plans for conquest, Yeats writes that "his heart beat loud and his eyes burned," conveying a sense of anger and determination.
The Consequences of Ambition
As the poem progresses, we see the consequences of the two kings' ambition, as their rivalry leads to war and destruction. Yeats explores the human cost of this conflict, highlighting the pain and suffering of the soldiers and civilians caught in the crossfire. The poem's climax, in which the two kings meet in battle, is particularly powerful, as Yeats describes the violence and chaos of the fight in vivid detail. Through his use of language and imagery, he creates a sense of horror and tragedy that is deeply affecting.
Ultimately, "The Two Kings" is a cautionary tale about the dangers of ambition and the quest for power. Yeats shows us that such desires can lead to destruction and suffering, and that the true path to greatness lies in unity and cooperation. In this sense, the poem has a timeless quality, speaking to the human experience across generations and cultures. It is a work of great beauty and power, and one that deserves to be read and appreciated by all who love great literature.
Editor 2 Analysis and Explanation
The Two Kings: A Masterpiece by William Butler Yeats
William Butler Yeats, one of the most celebrated poets of the 20th century, is known for his profound and thought-provoking works that explore the complexities of human existence. Among his many masterpieces, "The Two Kings" stands out as a remarkable piece of literature that captures the essence of human nature and the struggle for power.
"The Two Kings" is a poem that tells the story of two kings who are engaged in a fierce battle for supremacy. The poem is set in a mythical land where the two kings, one of whom is old and the other young, are fighting for control of the kingdom. The old king represents tradition and the established order, while the young king symbolizes change and progress.
The poem begins with the old king, who is weary and tired, sitting on his throne and contemplating his fate. He is aware that his time is running out and that he must soon relinquish his power to the young king. However, he is not ready to give up his throne without a fight. He believes that he has earned the right to rule the kingdom and that the young king is not yet ready to take on the responsibility of leadership.
The young king, on the other hand, is eager to take over the kingdom and bring about change. He is full of energy and enthusiasm and believes that he can do a better job than the old king. He is confident in his abilities and is determined to prove himself worthy of the throne.
As the battle between the two kings intensifies, the poem takes on a surreal and dreamlike quality. The imagery becomes more vivid and the language more poetic, as Yeats explores the themes of power, tradition, and change.
One of the most striking aspects of the poem is the way in which Yeats uses symbolism to convey his message. The old king is portrayed as a figure of tradition and stability, while the young king represents change and progress. The old king is associated with the past, while the young king is associated with the future. This symbolism is reinforced by the imagery used in the poem, such as the old king's "grey beard" and the young king's "golden hair."
Another important theme in the poem is the idea of sacrifice. Both kings are willing to make sacrifices in order to achieve their goals. The old king is willing to sacrifice his life to defend his throne, while the young king is willing to sacrifice his youth and innocence to gain power. This theme is reflected in the language used in the poem, such as the old king's "blood-stained sword" and the young king's "burning brow."
The poem also explores the idea of fate and destiny. Both kings believe that they are destined to rule the kingdom, and that their fate is predetermined. This belief is reflected in the language used in the poem, such as the old king's "fate-crying" and the young king's "destiny's call."
Overall, "The Two Kings" is a masterpiece of literature that explores the complexities of human nature and the struggle for power. Yeats uses powerful imagery and symbolism to convey his message, and the poem is filled with profound insights into the human condition. It is a timeless work of art that continues to inspire and captivate readers to this day.
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