'November' by Thomas Hood

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No sun - no moon!
No morn - no noon -
No dawn - no dusk - no proper time of day.
No warmth, no cheerfulness, no healthful ease,
No comfortable feel in any member -
No shade, no shine, no butterflies, no bees,
No fruits, no flowers, no leaves, no birds! -

Editor 1 Interpretation

Analyzing the Beauty of Thomas Hood's November

Oh, November, you beautiful month! When the leaves fall from the trees and the wind picks up, there is something magical in the air. Thomas Hood captures the essence of this month perfectly in his poem, "November."

Historical Context

Thomas Hood was a 19th-century English poet and humorist. His works were often satirical and showcased his wit and humor. He was also known for his melancholic poems, which often dealt with themes of death and loss. Hood wrote "November" in 1844, during a time when the industrial revolution was in full swing in England. This period saw the rise of factories and mass production, which caused significant changes in society. Hood's poem reflects the mood of this time, with its dark and somber tone.

Structure and Form

"November" is a sonnet, a form of poetry consisting of 14 lines. It follows the traditional Shakespearean sonnet structure, with three quatrains (four-line stanzas) and a final couplet (two-line stanza). The rhyme scheme is ABAB CDCD EFEF GG.

Hood's use of the sonnet form is particularly effective in this poem. The tight structure of the sonnet mirrors the changing weather and the progression of the month. Each quatrain represents a different aspect of November, from the falling leaves to the dreary weather. The final couplet acts as a conclusion, tying together the different themes of the poem.


The poem begins with an image of nature in transition. The leaves are falling from the trees, and the wind is picking up. Hood uses imagery to paint a picture of the changing landscape:

November comes,
And November goes,
With the last red berries
And the first white snows.

The use of repetition in the opening lines emphasizes the cyclical nature of the month. November is both beginning and ending, a time of transition and change. The mention of the "last red berries and the first white snows" underscores this theme. The red berries represent the end of autumn, while the snows represent the beginning of winter.

The second quatrain focuses on the weather. Hood describes the "chill rain" and the "darkened air." The use of the word "chill" conveys a sense of coldness, while "darkened" suggests a lack of light. The image created by these words is one of gloom and despair. The weather in November is harsh and unforgiving, and Hood captures this perfectly in his poem.

The third quatrain takes a more philosophical turn. Hood asks why November is so bleak and dreary. He wonders if the month is mourning for the summer that has passed or if it is preparing for the winter to come. The use of personification in this section is particularly effective. November is given human qualities, and it becomes a character in its own right.

The final couplet ties together the different themes of the poem. Hood concludes that November is a time of both mourning and preparation. The month is saying goodbye to the past while also getting ready for the future. The use of the word "prepare" suggests that there is hope, even in the midst of despair.


In "November," Thomas Hood captures the essence of the month perfectly. His use of imagery, personification, and the sonnet form creates a vivid and haunting portrait of November. The poem reflects the mood of the time in which it was written, and its themes of transition and change are still relevant today. November may be a bleak and dreary month, but Hood's poem reminds us that there is always hope for the future.

Editor 2 Analysis and Explanation

Poetry November: A Masterpiece of Thomas Hood

Thomas Hood, a renowned English poet, wrote a masterpiece called "Poetry November" that has been widely appreciated for its vivid imagery and powerful emotions. The poem is a reflection of the poet's thoughts on the melancholic month of November, which is often associated with the end of autumn and the beginning of winter. In this article, we will delve into the depths of this poem and explore its themes, literary devices, and overall impact on the reader.

The poem begins with the line, "No sun - no moon!" which sets the tone for the rest of the poem. The absence of the sun and moon signifies the darkness and gloominess of November. The poet then goes on to describe the barren trees and the withered leaves that lie scattered on the ground. The imagery used in this stanza is powerful and evokes a sense of desolation and despair.

The second stanza of the poem is where the poet's true emotions come to the forefront. He talks about how November is a month of mourning and how it reminds him of the loved ones he has lost. The line, "The dead leaves their rich mirth out of the air" is particularly poignant as it shows how the memories of the departed ones are still present in the air, even though they are no longer alive. The use of personification in this stanza, where the leaves are given the ability to express emotions, adds to the overall impact of the poem.

The third stanza of the poem is where the poet talks about the beauty of November despite its melancholic nature. He describes how the mist and fog create a mystical atmosphere that is both eerie and enchanting. The line, "The misty mirk and the chill dripping fog" is a perfect example of how the poet uses alliteration to create a sense of rhythm and flow in the poem.

The fourth stanza of the poem is where the poet talks about the power of poetry to alleviate the pain and sorrow that November brings. He describes how poetry can transport us to a different world and how it can help us forget our troubles, even if it is just for a moment. The line, "But in the wine of poetry lie" is a beautiful metaphor that shows how poetry can be like a soothing balm that can heal our wounds.

The fifth and final stanza of the poem is where the poet talks about the inevitability of November and how we must learn to accept it. He describes how November is a reminder of the cycle of life and how everything must come to an end. The line, "And thus I sit, whose hopes are gone" is a powerful statement that shows how the poet has come to terms with the fact that everything must come to an end.

Overall, "Poetry November" is a masterpiece that showcases Thomas Hood's mastery of language and his ability to evoke powerful emotions in the reader. The poem is a reflection of the human condition and how we must learn to accept the inevitable. The use of vivid imagery, powerful metaphors, and personification all add to the overall impact of the poem. It is a poem that will stay with the reader long after they have finished reading it and will continue to evoke powerful emotions every time it is read.

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